Law is the set of rules and principles that govern society. The laws of a country are made by the government and then enforced. A person can be charged with breaking a law, which can lead to fines and imprisonment.
There are two main types of laws: civil law and criminal law. The former deals with issues affecting individuals and their relationships, while the latter is concerned with offenses against communities.
Almost all countries have some form of civil law. They are based on concepts and categories derived from Roman law, though they often have additional influences and local customs. They are also usually codified, which makes them easier to understand and interpret.
Property law involves ownership and possession of land, buildings and other objects. It covers issues such as mortgages, leases and land registration, while also regulating the use of personal property. This includes things such as computers and jewelry, but also intangible rights such as stock shares.
Tort law involves compensation for injuries caused by accident or defamation of character. It is a field that deals with disputes between people, and can be very complex.
Company law is a branch of commercial law that deals with companies, corporations and other forms of businesses. It is governed by the UK Sale of Goods Act and the US Uniform Commercial Code, both of which are largely a codification of common law.
Contract law is a branch of law that deals with contracts, particularly business agreements. It encompasses contracts such as employment contracts, purchase and sales agreements, and contracts involving the transfer of ownership or control of assets.
Trusts are a part of both property and company law, and are important in the formation and maintenance of companies. They protect the interests of those who own them.
Regulations are a type of law that controls how a certain industry or activity is conducted. This can include issues such as energy, gas and water. It can also include environmental regulations, such as those regarding the Kyoto Protocol and the potential risks associated with climate change.
In most OECD nations, the public sector is regulated by governments. This is to ensure that services are provided in a reasonable and consistent manner, as well as ensuring that the public are treated fairly by companies doing the work.
Taxes are an example of tax laws, as are banking and financial regulation. These are rules that are designed to ensure that the economy runs smoothly, in addition to preventing financial crises such as the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
Aviation law is another field of law that deals with the operations of aircraft. It is a complex and technical area that includes regulations and standards that pilots must adhere to in order to fly safely.
It is an interesting and a challenging field of study, so it can be a great way to make a living. It is also an extremely rewarding and satisfying career path.